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William Tell and Arnold von Winkelried

Far up among the Alps, in the very heart of Switzerland, are three

districts, or cantons, as they are called, which are known as the

Forest Cantons and are famous in the world's history. About two

thousand years ago the Romans found in these cantons a hardy race

of mountaineers, who, although poor, were free men and proud of

their independence. They became the friends and allies of Rome,

and the cantons were for many
years a part of the Roman Empire, but

the people always had the right to elect their own officers and to

govern themselves.

When Goths and the Vandals and the Huns from beyond the Rhine and

the Danube overran the Roman Empire, these three cantons were not

disturbed. The land was too poor and rocky to attract men who were

fighting for possession of the rich plains and valleys of Europe,

and so it happened that for century after century, the mountaineers

of these cantons lived on in their old, simple way, undisturbed by

the rest of the world.

In a canton in the valley of the Rhine lived the Hapsburg family,

whose leaders in time grew to be very rich and powerful. They

became dukes of Austria and some of them were elected emperors.

One of the Hapsburgs, Albert I, claimed that the land of the Forest

Cantons belonged to him. He sent a governor and a band of soldiers

to those cantons and made the people submit to his authority.

In one of the Forest Cantons at this time lived a famous mountaineer

named William Tell. He was tall and strong. In all Switzerland no

man had a foot so sure as his on the mountains or a hand so skilled

in the use of a bow. He was determined to resist the Austrians.

Secret meetings of the mountaineers were held and all took a solemn

oath to stand by each other and fight for their freedom; but they

had no arms and were simple shepherds who had never been trained

as soldiers. The first thing to be done was to get arms without

attracting the attention of the Austrians. It took nearly a year

to secure spears, swords, and battle-axes and distribute them among

the mountains. Finally this was done, and everything was ready.

All were waiting for a signal to rise.

The story tells us that just at this time Gessler, the Austrian

governor, who was a cruel tyrant, hung a cap on a high pole in the

market-place in the village of Altorf, and forced everyone who passed

to bow before it. Tell accompanied by his little son, happened to

pass through the marketplace. He refused to bow before the cap and

was arrested. Gessler offered to release him if he would shoot an

apple from the head of his son. The governor hated Tell and made

this offer hoping that the mountaineer's hand would tremble and

that he would kill his own son. It is said that Tell shot the apple

from his son's head but that Gessler still refused to release him.

That night as Tell was being carried across the lake to prison a

storm came up. In the midst of the storm he sprang from the boat

to an over-hanging rock and made his escape. It is said that he

killed the tyrant. Some people do not believe this story, but the

Swiss do, and if you go to Lake Lucerne some day they will show

you the very rock upon which Tell stepped when he sprang from the


That night the signal fires were lighted on every mountain and

by the dawn of day the village of Altorf was filled with hardy

mountaineers, armed and ready to fight for their liberty. A battle

followed and the Austrians were defeated and driven from Altorf.

This victory was followed by others.

A few years later, the duke himself came with a large army,

determined to conquer the mountaineers. He had to march through

a narrow pass, with mountains rising abruptly on either side. The

Swiss were expecting him and hid along the heights above the pass,

as soon as the Austrians appeared in the pass, rocks and trunks of

trees were hurled down upon them. Many were killed and wounded.

Their army was defeated, and the duke was forced to recognize the

independence of the Forest Cantons.

This was the beginning of the Republic of Switzerland. In time

five other cantons joined them in a compact for liberty.

About seventy years later the Austrians made another attempt to

conquer the patriots. They collected a splendid army and marched

into the mountains. The Swiss at once armed themselves and met

the Austrians at a place called Sempach. In those times powder

had not been invented, and men fought with spears, swords, and

battle-axes. The Austrian soldiers stood shoulder to shoulder,

each grasping a long spear whose point projected far in front of

him. The Swiss were armed with short swords and spears and it was

impossible for them to get to the Austrians. For a while their cause

looked hopeless, but among the ranks of the Swiss was a brave man

from one of the Forest Cantons. His name was Arnold von Winkelried

(Win'-kel-ried). As he looked upon the bristling points of the

Austrian spears, he saw that his comrades had no chance to win

unless an opening could be made in that line. He determined to

make such an opening even at the cost of his life. Extending his

arms as far as he could, he rushed toward the Austrian line and

gathered within his arms as many spears as he could grasp.

"Make way for liberty!" he cried-- Then ran, with arms extended

wide, As if his dearest friend to clasp; Ten spears he swept

within his grasp. "Make way for liberty!" he cried-- Their keen

points met from side to side. He bowed among them like a tree,

And thus made way for liberty.

Pierced through and through Winkelried fell dead, but he had made

a gap in the Austrian line, and into this gap rushed the Swiss

patriots. Victory was theirs and the Cantons were free.